Infertility is an inability to conceive a child even after having normal unprotected intercourse. Infertility can also be referred to as biological inability or hindrance to conceive a child. Most couples approximate 85 per cent of them can achieve pregnancy within 12 months and an additional 7 percent get pregnant in second year. Infertility can be defined as an inability to conceive even after 12 months of regular unprotected intercourse. Infertility can be differentiated into two types Primary and Secondary. Primary infertility means that couple had never had a child. Secondary infertility means that couple had one or more child but is not capable for the second child. About 50 percent of the infertility is directly or indirectly linked to female and about 30 percent of female infertility is yet to be discovered. About 40 percent of issue involved with infertility is due to man, about 40 percent due to female and rest 20 percent result from complication from both the parent. There are much biological causes of Infertility.
According to world. Health Organization.
“Infertility is the inability to conceive a child. A couple may be considered infertile if after two years of regular sexual intercourse, without contraception, the woman has not become pregnant(and there is no other reason such as breastfeeding or postpartum) Primary infertility is infertility in a couple who never had a child. Secondary Infertility is failure to conceive following a previous pregnancy.”
Fertile women experience a natural period of fertility before and during ovulation and they are naturally infertile during rest of the menstrual cycle.
Unexplained Infertility-In unexplained Infertility abnormalities are there but it’s very difficult to explain them or discover them to any conclusion. Possible causes that can be seen are-
Eggs are not released during the time of fertilization
Eggs may not enter the fallopian tube.
Sperm may not able to reach the egg.
Fertilization may be failed.
Zygote may be disturbed.
It is widely accepted and recognized that egg quality carries a critical importance and female of advanced maternal age have eggs of reduced quality for normal and successful fertilization.
Risk Factor for Infertility-
Age-A female fertility drops after 32 years of age and continues to do so In male 50 years is less fertile than a male of 20 years.
Smoking-Smoking significantly reduces the fertility both in men and women.
Alcohol consumption-A women’s pregnancy can be seriously affected by the use of alcohol. Alcohol abuse may lower male fertility.
Sexually transmitted infections-CHLAMYDIA can severely damage the fallopian tube. as well as male scrotum inflamed.
Eating Disorder-women who are underweight due to an eating disorder can experience infertility.
Obesity-In sedentary lifestyle and overweight female infertility are very commonly observed and an overweight man has a risk of having abnormal sperm.
Mental stress-Mental stress is a very common cause of infertility. If any one partner is in stress then sexual intercourse will be less and that will lead to failed fertilization of eggs.