Male infertility refers to failure of a man to achieve pregnancy in a fertile female. Male infertility accounts for one in five infertile couples. In human beings male infertility accounts for 40 to 50% of infertility. One of the most accepted and widely defined reasons of male infertility is low sperm count and semen quality is used as a surrogate measure of male fecundity.
Male infertility can be diagnosed by semen analysis. Semen analysis involves lab testing of semen for diagnosis of the quality of sperm, amount of sperm, shape of sperm and movement of sperm. In most case male infertility is not recognized. Intercourse, erections and ejaculation usually happen without difficulty. The quantity and amount of ejaculated semen generally appears normal to the naked eyes.
SEMEN– Semen is the fluid that man’s genital organ releases during orgasm. Semen consists of fluid and sperm. The fluid comes from the prostate gland, seminal vesicle and other sex glands. The sperm is produced in the testicle.
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Male reproductive system is located in the pelvis region. It includes a pair of testes along with accessory ducts, glands and the external genitalia.The testes are situated outside the abdominal cavity within a pouch called scrotum. The scrotum helps to maintain the low temperature of the testes (2-2.5 degree c lower temperature than the normal internal body temperature) The penis is the external genitalia it is made up of special tissue that helps in the erection of the penis to facilitate insemination. In adults each testis is oval in shape, with a length of about 4 to 5 cm and a width of about 2 to 3 cm.The testis is covered by a dense covering. Each testis has about 250 compartments called as testicular lobules. Each lobule contains one to three coiled seminiferous tubules in which sperms are produced.
DIAGNOSING MALE INFERTILITY–
There are several methods by which male infertility can be diagnosed.
Physical examination-A person is asked about the past medical records. His testicle and male reproductive organs are examined for any deformities or any lumps.
Semen analysis-the doctor may ask for lab test of semen to check sperm motility, color, quality and infections.
Blood test-Level of testosterone and other male sex hormones.
Ultrasound Test-The doctor may check any ejaculation deformities or any blockage in ejaculatory duct.